Chord melody

Unknown

---------

-----------------------

    ------  -----------  ----------

    -------------------------------

-------------------------------

   ----------- 4th fret   ----------- 4th fret  ----------- 5th fret

   -----------            -----------           -----------

   -----------            -----------           -----------

   -----------            -----------           -----------

   -----------            -----------           -----------


 E7
                          ----------- 4th fret

| | | | | |
                          -----------

| | | | * |
                          -----------

| | * | | |
                          -----------

| * | * | |
                          -----------

As you become comfortable with this excercise, feel free to modify
the basic forms to create more interesting chords and expand, in a
systematic way, your understanding of how these forms can be modified
and extended from the basic forms. Feel free to look through the
chord library to find these chords.
=0C
DAILY EXCERCISE REGIMEN (contd)
-------------------------------

7. This is an optional step (for "extra credit" for those who are
particularly motivated). Play the harmonized scale using forms
that are as close to each other as possible picked from the chord
form library. You can start with simple major and minor forms and
expand to using altered and extended forms later. The harmonized
scale will be built diatonically:
I ii iii IV V7 vi vii
A capital Roman numeral represents a major chord. A small Roman
numeral represents a minor chord (except for the vii, which is a
half-diminshed chord). The root of the chord is the melody in
each case. The note picked in step one is the Root note for this
scale (which also determines the key).
=0C
DAILY EXCERCISE REGIMEN (contd)
-------------------------------

Suggested daily practice forms for excercise 6:
These forms, though presented in the library, are singled out here as
a valuable and efficient way to work daily on getting the mechanics
of harmonizing melodies from the CAGED forms into your head and
fingers. Later in this paper, there will be discussion regarding
the use of these forms and why melodies are played on the first and
second strings.
By the time you have these memorized, you will not need to have them
memorized. This may seem like a contradiction, but by working at
memorizing them, you will come to understand how they are built.
Root as melody on the first string (E form):
   -----------  -----------  ----6------  -----------  ----6------

| | | | 5 R | |b7 | 5 R | | | | 5 R | |b7b3 5 R | | |b3 5 R
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | 7 3 | | | | | 3 | | | | | 3 | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

maj 7 dom 7 maj 6 mi 7 mi 6
Third as melody on the first string (D form):
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | R | | | | | R | | | | | R | 6 | | | R | | | | | R | 6 |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | |b7 | | | | | | | | | | |b7b3 | | | | |b3
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | 5 7 3 | | | 5 | 3 | | | 5 | 3 | | | 5 | | | | | 5 | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

maj 7 dom 7 maj 6 mi 7 mi 6
Fifth as melody on the first string (C form):
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | R | | | | | R | | | | | R | | |b3 | R | | |b3 | R |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | 3 | | | | | 3 | | | | | 3 6 | | | | | | | | | | | 6 | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | 5 | | |b7 | 5 | | | | | 5 | | |b7 | 5 | | | | | 5
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | 7 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

maj 7 dom 7 maj 6 mi 7 mi 6
=0C
DAILY EXCERCISE REGIMEN (contd)
-------------------------------

Suggested daily practice forms for excercise 6 (contd):
Seventh (and sixth) as melody on the first string (G form):
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |b3 | | | | |b3 |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | 5 R 3 | | | 5 R 3 | | | 5 R 3 6 | | 5 R | | | | 5 R | 6
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | |b7 | | | | | | | | | | |b7 | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | 7 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

maj 7 dom 7 maj 6 mi 7 mi 6
Root as melody on the second string (C form):
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | 5 | | | | | 5 | | | 6 | 5 | | | | | 5 | | | 6 | 5 | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | R | |b7 | | R | | | | | R | |b7b3 | R | | |b3 | R |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| 7 3 | | | | | 3 | | | | | 3 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

maj 7 dom 7 maj 6 mi 7 mi 6
Third as melody on the second string (A form):
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 6 | | | | | | | | | | | 6 | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| R | | | | | R |b7 | | | R | | | | | R |b7 | | | R | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | 7 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |b3 | | | | |b3 |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | 5 | 3 | | | 5 | 3 | | | 5 | 3 | | | 5 | | | | | 5 | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

maj 7 dom 7 maj 6 mi 7 mi 6
=0C
DAILY EXCERCISE REGIMEN (contd)
-------------------------------

Suggested daily practice forms for excercise 6 (contd):
Fifth as melody on the second string (E form):
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | 6 | | | | | | | | | | | 6 | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

R | | | 5 | R |b7 | 5 | R | | | 5 | R |b7b3 5 | R | |b3 5 |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | 7 3 | | | | | 3 | | | | | 3 | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

maj 7 dom 7 maj 6 mi 7 mi 6
Seventh (and sixth) as melody on the second string (D form):
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | R | | | | | R | | | | | R | 6 | | | R | | | | | R | 6 |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | |b7 | | | | | | | b3 | | |b7 | b3 | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

3 | | 5 7 | 3 | | 5 | | 3 | | 5 | | | | | 5 | | | | | 5 | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

maj 7 dom 7 maj 6 mi 7 mi 6
=0C
BACKGROUND MUSIC THEORY
-----------------------

There are two relatively simple ideas from music theory that you will
need to know to understand the chord construction material presented
in this paper. These are scale construction and chord spelling, which
is based on scale construction. Music is very logical this way. The
problem is that, rather than being presented in a logical manner, music
is always presented as a very complicated subject that has a mystique
that prevents mere mortals from partaking in it. This is definitely
not the case, as will be shown in this paper.
Scales:
-------

There are two basic types of scales known as the CHROMATIC and DIATONIC
scales. The chromatic scale simply contains all twelve possible tones,
which serves as the best place to start. The diatonic scale contains
a subset of these twelve tones, which can be understood after the
chromatic scale is explained.
The twelve possible tones are:
 AA#BCC#DD#EFF#GG#ABbDbEbGbAb
                                                                There are several things to notice about this information.  First of
all, the letters of the alphabet from A to G are used to designate
the notes. Normally at this point, most music texts refer to the
piano to illustrate the various relationships. Since the guitar
fretboard is laid out completely different from the piano, we will
not do this.
There are five tones within the chromatic scale that have two names.
This is what is referred to as ENHARMONIC tones, or, one tone with
two names. The reasoning behind this will become clear when we
discuss the concept of KEYS, which goes with the diatonic scale.
Now, the concept of INTERVALS should be presented. An interval is
the distance between two tones. The smallest distance between two
tones is the HALF STEP. The half step is represented on the guitar
as moving from one fret to the next fret above or below the current
fret on the same string. All other distances, or intervals, are
simply multiples of the half step - and thus, movements of that many
frets on the guitar. For example, the next useful interval is the
whole step, which represents a movement of two frets up or down the
same string on the guitar.
=0C
Now, look at the guitar fretboard as we show the locations of all
the notes in the chromatic scale on it. Relate what you see to the
information just presented. Recognize the notes and see how the
movements of half and whole steps relate to the note you both start
and arrive at.
TUNING PEGS
   -----------

E A D G B E OPEN STRING TONES
   -----------

 FA#D#G#CF
   -----------

 F#BEAC#F#
   -----------

 GCFA#DG
   -----------

 G#C#F#BD#G#
   -----------

 ADGCEA
   -----------

 A#D#G#C#FA#
   -----------

 BEADF#B
   -----------

 CFA#D#GC
   -----------

 C#F#BEG#C#
   -----------

 DGCFAD
   -----------

 D#G#C#F#A#D#
   -----------

 EADGBE
   -----------

Several things to notice here...
At the twelfth fret, the notes repeat themselves exactly. Notice
that the tones' letters at the twelfth fret are identical to those
at the tuning peg end labelled "open string tones". However, they
repeat an OCTAVE higher. We will get into the concept of the octave
when we discuss the diatonic scale. Notice also that at the fifth
fret on the sixth string, the tone letter is the same as the tone
letter of the next higher string's open tone letter. This is true
for all the strings except the third string. The tone letter at
the third string's fourth fret is the same as the open tone letter
for the next higher string. These relationships are the basis for
how the guitar is tuned. Those of you who have played guitar and
tuned it, will recognize this immediately. You will experience
this connection between what you read here and what you have
experienced on the guitar before over and over. Basically, the
more experience you have, the more familiar the material in this
paper will be. The information will, in this case, simply it all
together in a useable form.
Notice also that all the tone letters on the sixth string are
identical to those on the first string. Again the notes on the
first string are identical to those on the sixth string, except
that they sound an octave higher. Store this information for
now, but it will be useful later on.
=0C
As you can see, the chromatic scale consists of all the available
notes (twelve) contained within an OCTAVE. An octave consists of
two notes with the same letter name a distance of twelve half-steps
apart. The reason this distance is referred to as an octave is that
in the diatonic scale, this distance is traversed by eight notes, as
we will soon see.
The diatonic scale can best be described by the intervals that
constitute the scale:
whole whole half whole whole whole half
step step step step step step step
1 to 2 to 3 to 4 to 5 to 6 to 7 to 8
The first note of the diatonic scale constitutes its "key". When
we refer to a key, we are really referring to that diatonic scale
and what we can do with it.
The usual first example of a diatonic scale is the 'C' diatonic
scale. This is because there are no sharps (#) or flats (b) in
it. We will start with this scale and then proceed to build an-
other diatonic scale to introduce the concept of sharps and flats
and why they are used.
To build the C diatonic scale, we start with the tone letter 'C'.
Then, we apply the formula given above and count from the note we
are on along the chromatic scale the required number of half steps
(remember that a whole step consists of two half steps) to get the
next note. This process continues until we arrive at the original
note again. Note that in ALL cases, there must be one of each of
the letters: A B C D E F G A. The use of sharps (#) and flats (b)
merely ensures that this is possible under all conditions while
retaining the sequence of half and whole steps.
=0C
The chromatic scale presented again:
 AA#BCC#DD#EFF#GG#ABbDbEbGbAb
                                                                     We start with C.
From C we count up two half steps and arrive at D. Now we have
C and D in our diatonic scale. From D we count up two half steps
and arrive at E. From E we count up one half step and arrive at
F. From F we count up two half steps and arrive at G. From G
we count up two half steps and arrive at A. Now, we continue
by treating both A notes as the same (or think of the chromatic
scale as being circular with no end). We count up two half steps
from A and arrive at B. Then, we count up one half step from B
and arrive at C and we now have the entire diatonic scale for C:
 CDEFGABC
                      Now we will similarly build two more diatonic scales to demonstrate
the use of sharps (#) and flats (b). One rule of thumb to know at
this point is that sharps and flats do not occur together in the
same scale. If a flat is used in building a scale, the remainder
of that scale will also use flats and no sharps.
To build a G diatonic scale:
We start with G.
From G we count up two half steps and arrive at A. Now we have
G and A in our diatonic scale. From A we count up two half steps
and arrive at B. From B we count up one half step and arrive at
C. From C we count up two half steps and arrive at D. From D
we count up two half steps and arrive at E. We count up two half
steps from E and arrive at F#. Then, we count up one half step
from F# and arrive at G and we now have the entire diatonic scale
for G:
 GABCDEF#G
                       To build an F diatonic scale:
We start with F.
From F we count up two half steps and arrive at G. Now we have
F and G in our diatonic scale. From G we count up two half steps
and arrive at A. From A we count up one half step and arrive at
Bb. From Bb we count up two half steps and arrive at C. From C
we count up two half steps and arrive at D. We count up two half
steps from D and arrive at E. Then, we count up one half step
from E and arrive at F and we now have the entire diatonic scale
for F:
 FGABbCDEF
                    =0C
Try this with all the tone letters of the chromatic scale. You
should end up with the following scale spellings:
 C##D##E##F##G##A##B##CCDEFGABCC#D#E#F#G#A#B#C#DbEbFbGbAbBbCbDbDEF#GABC#DD#E#F##G#A#B#C##D#EbFGAbBbCDEbEF#G#ABC#D#EFGABbCDEFF#G#A#BC#D#E#F#GbAbBbCbDbEbFGbGABCDEF#GG#A#B#C#D#E#F##G#AbBbCDbEbFGAbABC#DEF#G#AA#B#C##D#E#F##G##A#BbCDEbFGABbBC#D#EF#G#A#BCDEFGABC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the process of building these (I hope you really did this--the
mechanics are very important for understanding what is to come
later), you may have noticed the double sharp (##). First, it
is important to understand that the flat (b) lowers a note one
half tone and sharp (#) raises a note one half tone. Therefore,
a double sharp raises a note two half tones (one whole tone).
There exists also a double flat (bb) which lowers a note two
half tones (one whole tone). All the sharps and flats do is to
maintain the diatonic relationship between the notes as specified
by the sequence of half and whole tones. There is nothing mys-
terious about this. There are many other sequences of half and
whole steps used to build other types of scales such as the various
minor scales. These are built the same way: by picking the starting
tone (key) and simply counting up the chromatic scale according to
the specified sequence of half and whole tones to get the remaining
notes.
=0C
The next conecpt (chord construction) builds on the previous scale
building concepts (which is why it is so important that you clearly
understand how to build the scales. Chords are "spelled" in much
the same way as scales, by sequences of ahlf and whole tones. The
letters for the chords are selected from the diatonic scale in the
same way that the notes for the diatonic scale are selected from
the chromatic scale. Do you see a pattern here? One piece of
information logically follows another. Also, there is a repetition
and similarity in how these concepts are applied over and over.
That is how the mechanics of Western music work.
Chords:
-------

The next concept (chord construction) builds on the previous scale
building concepts (which is why it is so important that you clearly
understand how to build the scales. Chords are "spelled" in much
the same way as scales, by sequences of ahlf and whole tones. The
letters for the chords are selected from the diatonic scale in the
same way that the notes for the diatonic scale are selected from
the chromatic scale. Do you see a pattern here? One piece of
information logically follows another. Also, there is a repetition
and similarity in how these concepts are applied over and over.
That is how the mechanics of Western music work.
There are a number of spellings for various typoes of chords. These
will be presented in this section after dissecting a typical spel-
ling to illustrate how to make use of the information.
Chords (for our purposes with regard to chord-melody) can be
divided up into three broad categories:
major: 1 3 5
minor: 1 b3 5
dominant 7: 1 3 5 b7
Let us start with the major chord:
The spelling "1 3 5" means that this chord is constructed from
the first note of the diatonic scale (also referred to as ROOT),
the third note of the diatonic scale, and the fifth note of the
diatonic scale.
=0C
For example, to construct the major chord from the C diatonic
scale:
 CDEFGABC
   8
 CEG135
                             On the guitar, you would typical play more than one of some of the
elements of the C major chord to produce a good sounding chord. In
the chord information that is presented beginning with the next
section, the 1 is always referred to as 'R' for ROOT. Therefore,
you can expect to see: R 3 5 for the major chord.
To construct the minor chord from the C diatonic scale:
 CDEFGABC
   8
 CEbG1b35
                               To construct the dominant 7 chord from the C diatonic scale:
 CDEFGABC
   8
 CEGBb135b7
                                     THAT IS ALL THERE IS TO IT!!!!
Note that earlier I said that the construction of chords is done
in the same manner as scales. With the scale, we have a specifi-
cation which details the intervals that make up the scale. The
same is true for chords. Up to this point, I have provided a use-
ful way of building chords. This method, I think, is the preferred
method because it is the simplest. However, in keeping with music
theory (and for the sake of a logical connection to the scale build-
ing method), I will briefly explain how a chord is built from inter-
vals.
=0C
For our example, we will use the major chord: 1 3 5
If we look at the makeup of the major scale:
whole whole half whole whole whole half
step step step step step step step
1 to 2 to 3 to 4 to 5 to 6 to 7 to 8
we see that the distance from the root to the third is:
whole whole
step step
1 to 2 to 3
which is 2 half steps + 2 half steps =3D 4 half steps
We also see that the distance from the third to the fifth is:
half whole
step step
3 to 4 to 5
which is 1 half step + 2 half steps =3D 3 half steps.
If we apply this knowledge to build the C major chord from the
chromatic scale, starting on C, we get:
ROOT 3rd 5th
| | |
v v v
 AA#BCC#DD#EFF#GG#ABbDbEbGbAb
                                                                   However, the most efficient way to look at all this is as we
originally presented it. The basic idea is to create the pool
of notes that constitute the major scale we wish to use (our
"key"). From this pool, we grab notes to build chords. The
standard chord spellings give us this. When we refer to 1 3 5,
or 1 b3 5, or 1 3 5 b7, we are referring NOT to the half and
whole step intervals, but instead to the elements of the diatonic
scale. All we have to do is count up from 1 (root) to 3 or 5, etc.
For flat (b) or sharp (#) altered notes, we still use the same
idea. But, when we get the note, we flat or sharp it. The flat
or sharp used in this way refers to what is known as an ACCIDENTAL.
An accidental is a note that does not contain the same KEY SIGNATURE
as was specified by the key. The key signature is a term that
refers to the sharps or flats in printed music that indicates the
key. If you went through the excercise of building all the scales,
you are now familiar with the patterns of sharps and flats that
constitute each of the keys (notice I did not say "memorized").
These patterns are the "key signature". In printed music, the
sharps or flats (not AND flats) are specified at the beginning
of each set of lines (staff). All occurances of notes that are
flatted or sharped as specified in the key signature are flatted
or sharped throughout the piece. A flat or sharp may be placed
in front of a particular note to cause all occurances of that
note WITHIN THAT MEASURE to be sharped or flatted. That is an
accidental and not part of the key.
=0C
There are other scales that can be built (as mentioned earlier)
to minimize the number of accidentals required. For example, in
a minor key, the third will be flatted. Instead of using a major
key signature and accidentals for every occurance of a third
throughout the piece, you could use a minor key instead. We are
not concerned with that here, since we are merely indicating a
minor chord when it is used instead of writing out music. To this
end, we are keeping things conceptually simpler.
Here are all the standard chord spellings from the perspective
of formal music theory. Following this chart, we will present
the chart and rules as they apply directly to the limitations
(or opportunities) of the guitar fretboard.
chord type spelling
   -----------------  --------------------

major 1 3 5
major add 9 1 3 5 9
major 6 1 3 5 6
major 6/9 1 3 5 6 9
major 7 1 3 5 7
major 9 1 3 5 7 9
minor 1 b3 5
minor 6 1 b3 5 6
minor 6/9 1 b3 5 6 9
minor 7 1 b3 5 b7
minor 9 1 b3 5 b7 9
minor (maj 7) 1 b3 5 7
dominant 7 1 3 5 b7
dominant 9 1 3 5 9
dominant 11 1 3 5 b7 9 11
dominant 13 1 3 5 b7 9 11 13
OTHER USEFUL CHORDS:
diminished 1 b3 b5
diminished 7 1 b3 b5 bb7
half-diminished 7 1 b3 b5 b7
augmented 1 3 #5
augmented 7 1 3 #5 b7
Note that earlier we stated that you do not use sharps and flats
together in the same diatonic scale. With chords, this is not
always the case as evidenced by the augmented 7 chord. The guide-
lines for chord spelling and naming are somewhat looser than those
for scale spelling and building. Also note that the dominant 7
chord is commonly known as the 7th chord, while the major 7 chord
is known commonly as the major 7 chord.
=0C
You may have noticed the use of the numbers 9, 11, and 13. Here
is the explanation. By the way, we are almost done with all this
theory stuff. The major scale repeats itself over and over across
the range of human hearing. Each occurance of the scale is in a
different octave. In other words, a note at a specific pitch
only occurs in one occurance of the scale. (Note that a note of a
given pitch occurs in several places on the guitar fretboard. This
is a different situation than we are talking about here. This
situation leads to both the incredible flexibility and difficulty
of understanding the guitar fretboard and will be discussed in the
section introducing the CAGED system).
If we lay two major scales together, we will clearly see what the
9, 11, and 13 are:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15)
The numbers in parentheses are simply indicating what the numbers
would be called if we were to continue counting after 7. We are
primarily interested only in those values that we can stack on
top of the 7 by thirds. These are: 9, 11, and 13. The other
numbers above 7 we really don't concern ourselves with when building
chords. Therefore, we are concerned with what are called "extended"
tones from which we build chords.
As was mentioned previously, the formal music theory spelling of
chords must be modified somewhat according to some guidelines to
accomodate the fact that the guitar can only play a maximum of
six notes at one time. Also, six note chords generally sound to
muddy or full to be used as a steady diet for chord-melody playing.
It is more common to use 4 note chords with an occasional 5 or
6 note chord thrown in for good measure to add interest.
=0C
Here are the guidelines and typical chord spellings as they apply
to the guitar.
chord type spelling
   -----------------  --------------------

major 1 3 5
major add 9 1 3 5 9
major 6 1 3 5 6
major 6/9 1 3 5 6 9
major 7 1 3 5 7
major 9 1 3 5 7 9
minor 1 b3 5
minor 6 1 b3 5 6
minor 6/9 1 b3 5 6 9
minor 7 1 b3 5 b7
minor 9 1 b3 5 b7 9
minor (maj 7) 1 b3 5 7
dominant 7 1 3 5 b7
dominant 9 1 3 5 9
dominant 11 1 3 5 b7 11
dominant 13 1 3 5 b7 13
OTHER USEFUL CHORDS:
diminished 1 b3 b5
diminished 7 1 b3 b5 bb7
half-diminished 7 1 b3 b5 b7
augmented 1 3 #5
augmented 7 1 3 #5 b7
=0C
These guidelines were gleaned from studying many chord forms and
distilling their common traits into simple terms. In the next
section, these terms are applied to the CAGED forms to create a
very complete library of chord forms useful for chord-melody
arranging.
1. The 3rd (or b3) is required to establish major or minor tonality
of a chord. The exception os the suspended chord.
2. Extended chords (11, 13, and added notes to b7 chords) use four
notes typically. Root, 3, 5, or 9 can be omitted as necessary.
3. The 7th is played in all 9, 11, and 13 chords.
4. The root is omitted in most 9 chords.
5. A 9 chord that does not contain a 7 or b7 is known as an "add 9"
chord.
6. A 13 chord that does not contain a 7 or b7 is known as a 6 chord.
7. The 11 is not used in a 13 chord.
8. Use a 9 in a 13 chord if possible.
9. If a b13 is used in a chord, omit the 5.
10. The 5 is the most expendable chord element unless it is altered
(b5/#11 or #5/b13).
11. In a suspended chord, the 11 replaces the 3. A #11 (b5) does
not replace the 3.
12. In an 11 chord, if the 9 is not present, the chord is an "add 11".
13. The 11 is rarely (if ever) used in a maj 7 chord. The #11 is
common in a maj 7 chord.
=0C
Closing comments to this section:
---------------------------------

There is much more to music theory than has been presented here.
However, these other areas involve the study of harmony, while the
material presented here involves the basic mechanics of scale and
chord construction as it relates to chord-melody playing. I believe
that the best way to understand how chords move (harmony) is to play
lots of songs, which is the intent of this paper. When you are
familiar (and comfortable) with arranging chord-melody solos using
the material presented here, you can explore and understand the
more advanced concepts of music theory concerning harmony (should you
so desire).
The basic premise behind the chord-melody style is really very simple.
People tend to hear the highest note in a chord as the melody. There-
fore, the melody is played as the highest note of the chord, while the
bass line is the lowest note and the harmony fits in the middle. It is
important to know the RELATIONSHIP of the melody note to the chord.
For example, if the melody note is B and the chord is G, the melody is
the third of the chord. When you are looking for an appropriate chord,
you will be looking for some form of G major chord with the third on
top. If the melody was Bb, then the G chord would be a G minor chord.
This is where the information on chord spelling becomes very important.
To keep the melody as the highest note, the majority of the melody notes
should fall on the first and second strings of the guitar. It is often
necessary to TRANSPOSE the melody up or down to a different key to
cause the melody to be played on these two strings. To determine
what key to transpose the melody to, simply find the highest and
lowest melody notes and move them around until both these notes and
all those inbetween fall as comfortably as possible on the first two
strings. If some notes fall on the third string, you can accomodate
them. If some notes fall too high to comfortable play on your guitar,
you will need to find a lower key.
After you have found a suitable key, you will need to transpose the
remaining notes. The simplest thing to do is to count the number of
half-steps between the original first note and the new first note
and move each of the other notes up or down (the same direction as
you moved the first and last notes) the exact same number of steps.
Since you already moved the first and last notes, you won't move
those again. There are books that provide transposing charts, but
I think it is better for you to experiment with this on your own.
You will learn much more in the process.
PLEASE NOTE THAT FOLLOWING THE RATHER LENGTHY CHORD DICTIONARY SECTION
AN EXTENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY IS PRESENTED. WITHIN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY, YOU
SHOULD BE ABLE TO FIND INFORMATION ON JUST ABOUT ANY FACET OF MUSIC
THEORY WITH REGARD TO THE GUITAR FOR FURTHER STUDY. IF YOU PUT FORTH
A SUSTAINED, HONEST EFFORT TO ABSORB AND UTILIZE THE MATERIAL PRESENTED
IN THIS PAPER, YOU SHOULD HAVE LITTLE OR NO TROUBLE WORKING THROUGH ANY
OF THE MATERIALS IN THE BIBLIOGRAPHY. MORE IMPORTANTLY, YOU WILL BE WELL
EQUIPPED TO CHOOSE THE MATERIALS THAT ARE RIGHT FOR YOUR INDIVIDUAL
MUSICAL GOALS.
=0C
FUNDAMENTALS OF THE CAGED SYSTEM
--------------------------------

In this section, the foundation for all that is to follow will be
presented. You should review this material daily via the suggested
excercises presented at the end of this section. From this section,
you should become familiar with the CAGED system to the extent that,
in the future, any chord you play can be directly derived from one
of the basic CAGED chord forms. This association should become
automatic. The material presented here is the language of the guitar.
Like any language, its basic structures need to become second-nature
if natural and fluent communication is to take place in that language.
The CAGED system derives its name from the open string chord forms
that make up the basis for the system. These are the `C', `A', `G',
`E', and `D' chord forms. Each of these forms is considered to be
MOVEABLE. The term moveable implies that each of these forms can
be moved up or down the fretboard. When played in open position,
the nut serves as what is termed a BARRE. The barre is a way to
fret more than one string at a time. When any of these open string
forms is moved up the neck, the index finger serves as the barre,
replacing the nut. Some of these forms can be pretty awkward to
barre in its entirety. Therefore, some shortcuts will be presented.
The main idea is to become comfortable with the concept of the CAGED
system and to use it to both make music directly and as a springboard
to a systematic understanding of the guitar fretboard.
The basic idea of the CAGED system is that it serves as an interlocking
system of chord forms that perfectly cover the entire fretboard.
Starting with the `C' form and playing through the other four forms in
order, you will have played the same chord along the fretboard. These
forms individually look like this:
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | 5 | 3 | R | | | 5 | | 5 R 3 | R | | | 5 R | | R | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | | | R | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | | |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| | 3 | | | | | 5 R 3 | | 3 | | | | | 5 R | | | | | | 5 | 3
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

| R | | | | | | | | | | R | | | | R | | | | | | | | | | R |
   -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------  -----------

C Form A Form G Form E Form D Form
There are acceptable abbreviated forms for the 'G' and 'D' forms:
                             -----------               -----------

| | 5 R 3 | | | R | | |
                             -----------               -----------

| | | | | | | | | | | |
                             -----------               -----------

| 3 | | | | | | | 5 | |
                             -----------               -----------

R | | | | | | | | | R |
                             -----------               -----------

G Form D Form
=0C
There is a lot of information contained in these diagrams. First,
note that the fingering is notated using the elements of the chord
(R =3D 1). In a major triad (three-note chord), there are the ROOT,
THIRD and FIFTH elements of that chord's MAJOR SCALE. In the cases
where two or more notes occur at the same fret, use the same finger
to play all of them (called a barre). These forms are moveable, in
that they all move CHROMATICALLY up the neck.
This diagram shows how these forms interlock to provide a means of
playing the same chord up and down the neck without any gaps.
   -----------

NUT
   -----------

| | | * | * C Form
   -----------

| | | | * |
   -----------

| | * | | |
   -----------

| * | | | + A Form
   -----------

| | | | | |
   -----------

| | + + + | G Form
   -----------

| | | | | |
   -----------

| * | | | |
   -----------

* | | | | * E Form
   -----------

| | | + | |
   -----------

| + + | | | D Form
   -----------

| | | | | |
   -----------

| | | * | + C Form (Notice the overlap between these two
   -----------            forms: D to C.  Also notice that the

| | | | * | patterns repeat themselves seamlessly
   -----------            at the 12th fret.]

| | + | | |
   -----------

| + | | | |
   -----------

SOUND HOLE
   -----------

Wherever you start on the fretboard (and with whichever form), the
CAGED system lays out as shown in the preceding diagram. For example,
if you start with the 'E' form at the tenth fret (a 'D' major chord),
the preceding form will be the 'D' form barred at the 12th fret. Since
the pattern repeats at the 12th fret, the 'D' form appears as the open
'D' form at the nut.
=0C
A SHORTHAND NOTATION SYSTEM FOR FAKEBOOK ARRANGING
--------------------------------------------------

This section presents a simple notation system for notating your
chord voicings in a fake book to facilitate remembering the ar-
rangements you create using the CAGED system.
 123456-
                                                            Fret
The idea is to use a fraction-type system in which the number below
the fraction indicates the temporary open fret from which all the
numbers above the fraction are offset. There will always be an entry
above the fraction for each of the six strings of the guitar. In the
case where a string is not played, place an 'x' instead of a number
for that strings. For a string whose note is at the same fret as the
the fret designated as the open fret, place a 0. All other numbers
represent the number of frets toward the sound hole offset from the
fret number of the open fret the string is fingered to make the chord.
Example:
To notate the D major chord using the 'C' form:
   -----------    first fret

| | | * | *

A A# Ab B Bb C C# Cb D D# Db E Eb F F# Fb G G# Gb
variations - click chord images
Transpose chords:
Tuning:
Cool service:
View: Size:
A  A  A
Rating:
Layout:
  • Currently 0/5 Stars.
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
 
Accuracy:
  • Currently 0/5 Stars.
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
 
click stars to rate
Chordie recommends:
Learn to play guitar with video-based, online guitar lessons at JamPlay.com
Songbook:
Login to add this song to your songbook
Support the artist
Preview/buy this song
MSN Music
Why this non-profit ad?

 
login to add comments/video/corrections